Durand Line Agreement 1893 Pdf

Although the Durand Line is internationally recognized as Pakistan`s western border, it remains largely controlled by Afghanistan. [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] Sardar Mohammed Daoud Khan, former Prime Minister and future President of Afghanistan, vigorously opposed the border and engaged in a propaganda war, but during his visit to Pakistan in August 1976, he tempered his tone by recognizing the Durand Line as an international border. [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] In 2017, former Afghan President Hamid Karzai declared, amid cross-border tensions, that Afghanistan would “never recognize” the Durand Line as the international border between the two countries. [21] The United States and other NATO countries often ignore this sensitive issue, likely because of the potential impact on their war strategy in Afghanistan. When the Taliban government was deposed in late 2001, Afghan President Hamid Karzai also began to resist the Durand Line,[61] and today the current Afghan government does not recognize the Durand Line as its international border. Since 1947, no Afghan government has recognized the Durand Line as a border. [62] [63] Pakistan inherited the 1893 Agreement and the 1919 Treaty of Rawalpindi that followed the partition of British India in 1947. There has never been a formal agreement or ratification between Islamabad and Kabul. [34] Pakistan considers that it should not require an agreement fixing the border and the international convention of uti possidetis juris supports the position; [32] Courts in several countries around the world and the Vienna Convention have generally confirmed, through uti possidetis juris, that binding bilateral agreements are “passed on” to successor states.