Moscow Agreement

In the preamble to the Moscow Treaty, the intentions of the parties are outlined in the outline. The first pre-ambulatory paragraph designates the United States and Russia as “contracting parties” to prohibit the use of their full names throughout the treaty. In the second, third and fourth pre-ambulatory paragraphs, the common commitment of the contracting parties to maintain their relations over the new century on a fundamentally different basis from that which characterized their relationships in the past. The reference to “mutual security” in paragraph 4 refers to the non-endangerment of the parties` new strategic relationships; it does not imply any special relationship between the forces of the parties. Paragraph 5 reaffirms the parties` long-standing and general commitment to substantial reductions in strategic offensive armaments. This paragraph contains references to the specific commitments and obligations of the parties to the sixth, seventh and eighth ranks immediately following them, including those set out in the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms of 31 July 1991 (START Treaty) and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1 July 1991. 1968 (NPT). The sixth paragraph acknowledges the joint statements of Presidents Bush and Putin in Genoa on 22 July 2001 and in Washington, DC on 13 November 2001, which detail the new basis for US-Russian relations. This pre-ambulatory language does not imply any restrictions or obligations regarding defence programmes. The seventh and eighth paragraphs mention two existing agreements between the contracting parties on nuclear weapons, the START Treaty and Article VI of the NPT. In the last paragraph, the parties are convinced that this treaty will create more favourable conditions for the active promotion of security and cooperation and the improvement of international security. 2. This contract remains in effect until 31 December 2012 and may be extended by agreement of the parties or replaced earlier by a subsequent agreement.