Dutch Republic Agreement

On 23 January 1579, the agreement was reached in Utrecht, which constituted a “closer union” within the largest union of the Dutch, under the leadership of the General States sitting in Brussels. In the Union of Utrecht, provinces and cities were obliged… During the 1500s – improvement of, drainage systems and water regulation development of new windmills. 1500 – 1560 – Imports of Baltic cereals to the Netherlands have increased five-fold. 1504-1505 – Philipp I. organizes the invasion of Gelderland. The invasion fails. 1506 – 1515 – Reign of Margarete of Austria. January 1515 – Charles of Luxembourg (son of Philip), proclaimed conqueror of the Netherlands of the Habsburgs. (Charles would later become Emperor Charles V) 1515 – Karl reunites the army to subdue the Friesland and Groningen. 1515-1516 – Armed ships of friesland attack the navigation of Holland. 1516 – The death of Ferdinand of Aragon (Karl`s maternal grandfather) leaves Charles` successor on the Spanish throne. 1516 – 1521 – Beginning of the Reformation.

September 1517 – Charles V travels to Spain to celebrate the throne. Habsburg Netherlands during the reign of Margarete of Austria (1517 – 1530). March 1521 – The emperor bans Luther`s books, sermons and writings. July 1521 – 400 Lutheran pounds burned in Antwerp. 1522 – Charles founds the Dutch Inquisition. Frans Van der Hulst appointed General Inquisitor. 1523 – The pope approves the Dutch Inquisition. 1522-1523 – End of the Friesland War.

July 1523 – Two Augustin brothers burn in Brussels. 1525 – The guilds of Utrecht revolt and conquer the city. 1526 – First book burns in Amsterdam. September 1526 – The former priest is burned in The Hague. 1527 – Duke Karel invades Utrecht and Overijssel. October 1528 – Duke Karel surrenders. 1530 – Death of Margarete from Austria. The St. Felix`s Flood spread over much of South Beveland Island.

1531 – Charles returns to Brussels. Maria from Hungary to the regent (1531-1540). Charles created the Council of State and the Secret Council. March 1531 – Baptist leader Sikke Freerks is beheaded in Leeuwarden. March 1534 – The Baptists are executed in Haarlem and Amsterdam following an armed incident. March 1535 – Twenty-four Baptists hanged after the seizure of the Cistercian abbey of Oldeclooster. May 10, 1535 – Amsterdam City Hall confiscated by the Baptists. May 15, 1535 – Seven Anabaptists drowned in Amsterdam. December 1536 – Treaty on The Tomb – Duke Karel entrusts power over Groningen, Ommelanden and Drenthe to Kaiser. 1538 – Death of Duke Karel. 1539 – Duke William of the Marck de Kleve becomes the Duke of Gueldre.

Late 1530s – French King Francis I transfers troops from Italy to the Dutch border. French construction of a new system along the border. Charles V responds to the French threat with a new fixation, including Mons and Gravelines. 1539 – 1540 – Gent rebels against Mary of Hungary. 1540 – The Spanish conflict with France leads to an increase in taxation. 1541 – Duke William becomes a Lutheran. 1542 – Gelderlander`s last raid on Habsburg territory. 1543 – The German army led by Charles descends the Rhine and defeats William. September 1543 – The Treaty of Venlo Wilhelm cedes power over Gueldre. 1548 – So-called “pragmatic sanction” – the Netherlands of the Habsburgs recognized as an autonomous entity and the monarchy created for the emperor.

April 1550 – “Eternal Edile” – The Crown issues a decree providing for the death penalty and the confiscation of all property for the sneers. 1523 – 1565 – A total of 1,300 people were executed for Kessien in the Netherlands of the Habsburgs.